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Computers origins

Computers origins

 

The first suggestion that a machine for mathematical computation could be built was made more than a hundred years ago by the mathematician Charles Babbage. We now realize that he understood clearly all the fundamental principles of modern computers.

         Babbage was born in Devonshire, England, 1792. He did not receive a good education, but he taught himself mathematics so well that when he went in Cambridge, he found that he knew more algebra than his tutor.

         At that time mathematics in Cambridge was still under the influence of Newton and was quite unaffected by the contemporary developments on the continent.

         Charles Babbage was outstanding among his contemporaries because he insisted on practical application of science and mathematics. For example, he wrote widely on the economic advantages of mass productions and on the development of machine tools.

         In 1812 he was sitting in his room looking at a table of logarithms which he knew to be full of mistakes, when an idea occurred to him of computing all tabular functions by machinery. Babbage constructed a small working model which he demonstrated in 1822.

         The Royal Society supported the project and Babbage was promised a subsidy.

         In 1833 he began to think of building a machine which was in fact the first universal digital computer, as the expression is understood today.

         Babbage devoted the rest of his life to an attempt to develop it. He had to finance all of  the work himself and he was only able to finish part of the machine though he prepared thousands of detailed drawings from which it could be made.

         Babbage wrote more than 80 books and papers, bur he was misunderstood by his contemporaries and died a disappointed man in 1871.

         He tried to solve by himself and with his own resources a series of problems which in the end required the united efforts of two generations of engineers.

         After his death his son continued his work and built part of an arithmetic’s unit, which printed out its results directly on paper.

 

Vocabulary

 

to insist                            настаивать

table                                 таблица

to devote                          посвящать

to continue                       продолжать

Fundamental principals   основные принципы

Advantage                        преимущество

to print                              распечатать

to finance                          финансировать

computation                      вычисление

ЗАДАНИЯ:

 

  1. 1. Translate the words from Russian into English (Переведите слова с Русского языка на Английский)

 

1) Математические вычисления_____________________________________________

2) Основные принципы____________________________________________________

3) Хорошее образование____________________________________________________

4) Практическое применение науки и математики______________________________

_________________________________________________________________________

5) Экономические преимущества производства________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________

6) Логарифм______________________________________________________________

7) Подсчет функций при помощи машины____________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________

8) Конструировать_________________________________________________________

9) Рабочая модель_________________________________________________________

10) Цифровой компьютер___________________________________________________

11) Арифметический центр_________________________________________________

12) Распечатать результаты_________________________________________________

13) Основные принципы современных компьютеров____________________________

_________________________________________________________________________

14) Математик____________________________________________________________

15) Финансировать_____________________________________________________

 

 

 

  1. Answer the questions to the text. (Ответьте на вопросы по тексту)

 

1) When was the first suggestion about computers made?

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

2) When did Babbage demonstrate a small working model?

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

3) Did anybody finance all of the   work?

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

4) When did Babbage die?

_________________________________________________________________________

5) Who continued his work?

_________________________________________________________________________

6) He did not receive good education, did he?

_________________________________________________________________________

7) Why was Babbage outstanding among his contemporaries?

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

8) Who wrote on the economic advantages of mass productions?

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

9) Who built apart of an arithmetic unit after his death?

_________________________________________________________________________

10) When did he begin to think of building a machine?

_________________________________________________________________________

11) At that time mathematics in Cambridge was under the influence of Newton, wasn't it?

 

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